Member, Executive CommitteeChair, Government & Regulatory Policy Divisionemail
Chair, Federal Government Affairs and Public Policyemail
Government & Regulatory email
Government and Healthcare Practiceemail
Counsel and Strategic AdvisorNew York City Government Practice GroupGovernment & Regulatory Policyemail
Getting Business Strategies and Government Policies to Work TogetherIn business and government, relationships matter—even more so when the relationships are between the two entities. Savvy business leaders know that successful interaction with government is vital to implementing their organizations’ strategies and realizing their goals.
Manatt’s Government Relations group helps business and government work together. With hands-on political experience and more than 40 professionals located in key business centers and state capitals throughout the United States, our team enjoys access to every level of government.
Manatt does more than open doors. It provides an opportunity to have an impact on the regulatory and legislative landscape in a rapidly changing marketplace. We are actively involved in the issues that are important to our clients, helping to shape the policies, legislation and regulations that affect their interests.
Making Relationships Work for Our ClientsWhile the actions of federal, state and local decision makers regularly impact businesses, we help our clients understand government-related challenges and manage public policy change by anticipating it, creating it and making it work for them. The lawyers, lobbyists and other professionals in our practice are strategic thinkers who help clients grow and leverage sound positions that advance their public policy goals.
We find unique and often unprecedented solutions by designing advocacy strategies, directing lobbying of elected and appointed officials and orchestrating coalitions of business, labor, not-for-profit entities, community-based organizations and other grassroots groups to support lobbying initiatives.
Our team’s sophisticated political experience and leading-edge legal knowledge allow us to work for our clients in the following ways:
In the Forefront for Our Clients on the HillThe way we see it, we are on the front line for our clients’ interests. We know government policies, the ever-evolving laws and the political realities—and we effectively use that knowledge to advance our clients’ goals.
Our professionals have represented clients on legislation in every major committee of the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate, successfully working with Republican and Democratic leaders and members in both houses. We have firsthand experience as members of Congress, as senior staff advisors to senators and congressmen, and as counsel to the House and Senate Energy Committees, Senate Government Affairs Committee and other legislative groups on the Hill. Because our professionals have served on both sides of the aisle and have maintained strong relationships in Congress and with key players in the administration, our ability to advance our clients’ interests in Washington is unsurpassed.
Additionally, Manatt has a solid record of success in securing legislation and federal funding on behalf of clients, including millions of dollars on a wide variety of transportation, water and housing projects, as well as other areas of concern to business and regional interests. Whether addressing a competitive imbalance (such as our work to strengthen the antipiracy laws against trade counterfeiters), securing regulatory relief through legislation, or advocating new programs for expanding the transportation and housing infrastructure for our clients, we not only have the ears, but also the respect, of members in both houses and both parties of Congress.
Advocating for Clients at the State and Local LevelsManatt is one of the few law firms in the country with an extensive state and local government practice dedicated to advocating clients’ positions. Our team includes professionals who have held or currently hold state and local elective or appointive offices in jurisdictions throughout the United States. We use our extensive contacts to stay on top of proposed laws and regulations in municipalities, counties and states, advising clients of those that could have a direct impact on their businesses and helping present testimony as well as other position statements that inform and influence the right centers of authority.
Whether the efforts are legislative, administrative, proactive or remedial, our professionals make sure clients understand how to comply with agency decisions, opinions, rules and regulations, providing the proper focus to help balance federal, state and local obligations. Our depth of services at the state and local levels also includes advising on contracting processes, land use and environmental issues.
Our team often helps clients by participating directly in the legislative process. We regularly work for the passage, modification or defeat of legislation throughout the country, including the legislatures of our home states (California and New York) as well as many other states through our partnerships with local firms. In addition, we maintain a network of contacts in all 50 states. We are also intimately involved in all aspects of the municipal and regional governmental processes in Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, the District of Columbia, Baltimore, Philadelphia, as well as numerous other regional and local governmental bodies.
Successfully Cutting Through The Red Tape of California's Laws & Regulations Now more than ever, businesses need a partner who not only knows the ins and outs of California's complex and frequently changing laws and regulations, but can help them get things done in a timely manner. Manatt's California State Government Relations practice group has become the state's go-to lobbying and advocacy team for one simple reason-we help clients achieve their goals, even in the face of seemingly intractable problems.
Since our practice's founding in 1995, we have regularly come through for clients-clients who came to us after "others had failed" them or because someone in the governor's office told them we were "the only firm" they were willing to work with. Whether our efforts are legislative or administrative, proactive or remedial, we help ensure that you understand the implications of a proposed law, how to comply with agencies' decisions, opinions or regulations, and how best to meet overlapping federal, state and local requirements and laws.
Working out of an office close to the state capitol building, we maintain regular contact with administrative agencies to submit, track and amend applications for licenses, permits and renewals; reduce the time and effort required to maintain regulatory compliance; meet with government officials during grant application and project procurement cycles; and spring to action when immediate and unforeseen needs arise in the political, legislative or policy spheres.
Directly Involved In the Legislative Process We can advance your interests whether it is for the passage, modification or defeat of legislation. Our reputation for understanding all relevant factors and forces at play, the ability to tackle all sides of an issue to reach a satisfactory compromise, and our credibility with lawmakers as one of the state's premier business firms has allowed us to help shape the law for our clients rather than letting the law shape them.
Additionally, the head of our Sacramento office was recently honored by California Lawyer with an Attorney of the Year award in the "Legislation" category getting signed into law a bill that had been repeatedly vetoed in the past. Both he and our team built strong bipartisan legislative support while working tirelessly to keep the issue on the governor's radar screen.
Experienced In State Government and Policy Mailing The members of our California State Government Relations team have held state and local elected or appointed offices, served as close advisors to officeholders or brought professional and industry experience relevant to our client base.
Former positions of our team include:
Additionally, several members of our team currently serve in key decision-making positions throughout the state, including:
Successful Advocacy at the Municipal, County and Regional Levels In addition to advancing our clients' interests before the state legislature, various state agencies and other governmental subdivisions, Manatt's lobbying and advocacy team is intimately involved in all aspects of municipal, county and regional governmental processes, including government contracting, land use and environmental issues. We've been successful for our clients not just in Los Angeles, Orange County, Palo Alto, Sacramento and San Francisco, where we have offices, but also in numerous other locales throughout the state and region where we have cultivated personal relationships and established formal strategic affiliations with influential lawyers and other government affairs professionals.
Generalists-and Proud of It Elected officials tend to be generalists. While they know a fair amount on a broad range of issues, they rely on their ongoing relationships with government affairs firms to fill them in on the details. Nevertheless, they are often skeptical of specialists. Tackling "big picture" issues requires big picture thinking and approaches.
By not limiting our practice to a particular issue or sector, Manatt has gained credibility and trust among elected officials, which we have reinforced by developing communications strategies that focus not on how a bill or policy will further the interests of our client, but how it accords with an official's own standards or benefits his or her constituencies' interests. This approach has allowed us to help businesses, healthcare providers, contractors, trade associations, not-for-profit organizations, governments, public-private entities and community and grassroots interest groups in myriad ways. For example, our team has helped leading technology companies obtain waivers of conflict of interest rules, advocated tirelessly on behalf of large number of healthcare providers and stakeholders in the national healthcare reform debate, and steered some of the region's largest public infrastructure projects through the funding and approval process.
A Strong Hand To Keep A Hold On Funding Our tenacious team has been extensively involved in the creation, implementation and dissemination of legislative public policy and budget proposals on behalf of clients in the following sectors:
The success Manatt's California State Government Relations practice achieves for clients is the result of a comprehensive approach that incorporates substance, process, politics and messaging. With a thorough understanding of state and local government processes, regulatory agency operations, as well as the realities of clients' business operations and objectives, our team is able to develop and execute effective legal and political solutions to the complex issues facing our clients.
The City and
County of Los Angeles have long been ranked among the most progressive of
metropolitan areas, a vanguard of innovative policies that frequently serve as
templates for the rest of the country. Yet the same forces that account for its
forward-thinking reputation—innovative regulation, strong unions, and firm
government oversight and approval—can make the City and County a complicated
place to do business.
are bidding for or negotiating a government contract, navigating the regulatory
framework, tackling land use problems, or reacting to public policy issues, you
are apt to find the legal and political challenges unusually daunting. To make
real headway in the City or County—or in the 88 incorporated cities of the
wider County of Los Angeles—it pays for you to seek guidance from people who
know from long experience how to get things done in this highly complex, legal,
bureaucratic, and political environment.
The Home Team
deep roots in the Los Angeles area. The firm was founded here, and the City has
been our home for nearly 50 years, during which time we have become a fixture
in its civic and political life. Our strong team of government attorneys and
other professionals, who are vested in the success of your undertaking, can
deftly guide you through the inner workings of the myriad agencies and
departments you encounter. We can provide you with credible access to
councilmembers, supervisors, administrators, and other key policymakers,
prepare legal and policy materials, and secure and defend awards. We help you
secure government funding, grants and contracts, and ensure compliance with
state and local laws regulating interactions with the government.
We have a
solid track record of successfully advocating on behalf of clients in a wide
range of industries. Our attorneys have long-standing relationships with
officials at every level of government, and from both sides of the
aisle—including key commissioners with jurisdiction over transportation,
infrastructure and other development projects. Many of our attorneys have
public service backgrounds themselves—on legislative and executive staffs, or
in senior government positions—and they bring their acquired skills and
contacts to bear on your matter.
Manatt, your reach extends well beyond the Los Angeles area. Through our highly
regarded government affairs practices in Sacramento, New York City, Albany, and
Washington, D.C., we have the resources to advocate effectively on your behalf
at the state, regional, and national levels, and bring those resources to bear
locally as well.
Most of our
legal and advocacy efforts in the Los Angeles area center around the following:
the extensive engagement of our attorneys in civic and community affairs
supports the firm’s advocacy efforts in significant ways. While we regard our
commitment to a panoply of public organizations as, first and foremost, our
civic duty, it also provides us—and you—with an insider’s view of the City and
County. This unique perspective—the result of our long involvement in the
public life of the area—provides valuable knowledge of direct benefit to you.
Comprehensive Services and
represents clients from a wide range of industries—including the
transportation, infrastructure, energy, healthcare, technology, and financial
services sectors—in a wide range of advocacy efforts before City and County
entities, with respect to:
have appeared before virtually every department, agency, and joint powers
authority within the Los Angeles City and County governments, including:
A New Era of Advocacy After a decade's worth of whipsaw national elections centering on the political themes of partisan gridlock and discontent with the old ways of doing business in Washington, it is easy to understand why lobbying and policy advocacy are undergoing dramatic changes. Making your voice heard in the corridors of power has never been easy. But in today's environment of hyperscrutinized decisions and actions, unprecedented partisan standoffs, and social media and echo chamber communications, only the most legislatively astute and politically savvy lobbyists are succeeding. The successful advocates are the ones who can accurately read the political tea leaves, identify opportunities for action, assess the opposition, harness inside- and outside-the-beltway resources, and formulate, in real time, a strategy that produces results despite the odds. The ones with the know-how to create and sustain a policy environment in which your viewpoints will prevail. Manatt's Federal Government Affairs and Public Policy Group has such advocates. Click below to see overview video.
Strong Track Record In this time of high-stakes policy-making and unprecedented transparency, when a news article, blog post or twitter feed about a new bill or proposed rulemaking can send a stock valuation soaring or plummeting or cause an entire industry to rethink its business model, getting your voice heard above the din requires an experienced advocacy team that's adept at executing targeted government relations campaigns in highly charged environments. Manatt has that experience, having devised and implemented winning strategies in Congress and the Executive Branch for some of the world's best-known companies, trade associations and not-for-profits.
Washington Insiders Our successes are rooted in our government backgrounds. There is no better training ground. Nearly every member of our team has enjoyed highly successful and sustained careers in public service - as elected officials, political advisors, top staff or nationally recognized operatives. We enjoy the benefit of a team that includes former members of the U.S. House of Representatives, a White House Chief of Staff, top officials of both the Democratic and Republican Congressional Campaign Committees, and various other former Senate and House professionals, including committee staff directors, general counsel, and floor assistants to congressional leaders. Collectively, the team has amassed decades worth of working relationships and trust resulting from extensive dealings with Senate and House leadership and committee members and staff. Running just as deep are our relationships with elected officials and appointees in the White House and at the agencies, many of them former colleagues, or even staff, of our team members from their government days who have since risen to cabinet-level positions or are top staff in the West Wing.
Staunchly Post-Partisan We believe clients are best served by a post-partisan government affairs team and have taken decisive steps to build that kind of a group. Within our team we have Republicans and Democrats, Blue Dogs and Mainstreeters, gray beards and young guns. This approach has proven highly successful for our clients. We've developed and implemented winning strategies on the Hill regardless of which party holds a majority in the House or Senate. And we've enlisted Administration support regardless of which party holds the Presidency.
Large and Diverse Client Base We've been retained by companies across a broad array of industry sectors, including consumer goods and services; banking and financial services; real estate and infrastructure; transportation; agriculture and aquaculture; traditional and renewable energy; healthcare services; media and entertainment; national trade associations; and state, local and foreign governments. Frequent business before a large cross section of policymakers has enabled us both to expand and solidify our relationships, and ensures that we're better positioned than boutique or single-issue lobbying firms to observe the subtle interactions, scheduling challenges, instances of horse trading, and other intelligence that has become so critical to strategic maneuvering.
Coalition and Alliance Building Corporate belt-tightening has, for many, led to greater reliance on trade and professional associations to shoulder the bulk of a company's government relations needs. However, when such organizations are themselves constrained by limited resources, or prevented from acting due to a diverse membership with divergent interests, we can work with you to explore the benefits and costs of forming ad hoc coalitions or alliances, and then assist on structuring, formation, governance, cost allocation, strategy and tactics.
Strategic Planning Our federal government affairs practice is known for strategic thinking and the ability to execute. Most of our professionals come from distinguished careers in public service where one's ability to formulate a strategy, from conception to endgame, and then deliver on it is the standard of success. Applying this real-world experience to the needs of our clients, we develop a range of alternative strategies based on various political forks in the road, and then aggressively execute the agreed-upon plan, constantly refining and improving the strategic road map based upon emerging or changing situations and priorities.
Issue Tracking and Communication The size of our practice benefits clients in two ways. When tracking bills, regulations and other public policy developments, we cast a wider net than would a firm with a smaller footprint. We're also able to spread the cost of issue tracking across a large client base. We monitor key U.S. regulatory and legislative developments, from new bills and resolutions to regulatory guidance and communications to committee meeting minutes and "podium policy" moments, then we share the important developments, along with our analysis of its potential impact on your business operations or bottom line. A hallmark of our approach is that we don't wait to hear from our clients; we constantly engage with decision makers and influencers as your eyes and ears.
Politics and Campaigns While, in an ideal world, political campaigns and governance should never mix, it is often a practical necessity to carefully monitor and, at times, participate in the political process. We can assist you in forming a political action committee, advise you on how best to leverage the political programs of your trade associations, and help you make your views known at national political party conventions. As active participants in the political process ourselves, we maintain memberships, through our own bipartisan PAC, with all of the national party committees and important coalitions, including the New Democrat Coalition and the GOP Mainstreet Partnership, and also participate in congressional caucus events and policy forums, such as the Congressional Hispanic and Black Caucus Institutes.
On-the-Ground Presence An area in which we have particular expertise is representing companies and organizations that have chosen not to maintain a Washington-based office. We are currently serving as "boots on the ground" for clients ranging from major food manufacturers to national trade associations. Because such clients are well outside the real-time flow of inside-the-beltway information, we ratchet up our information-gathering role and the level and frequency of client communication.
New York City’s government reflects the complexity expected from the country's largest municipality. With an operating budget of $70 billion and touching the lives of 8 million residents, New York City government is daunting and incomprehensible to the uninitiated.
The professionals in Manatt’s New York City Government Practice understand the complexities, challenges and opportunities afforded by these policies and processes and have a successful track record of assisting clients in navigating the New York City government in pursuit of their most critical objectives.
Leveling a Uniquely Challenging Playing FieldManatt’s New York City Government Practice is a highly-qualified team of local experts who provide the seasoned understanding required for dealing with New York City’s challenging governing system. Many have served in government at high levels and have a keen understanding of the political landscape and governing environment that comes from firsthand experience. Thanks to these backgrounds rooted in local and grass roots politics, mayoral administrative service, and active representation on public and civic boards, Manatt clients gain high-value experience and deep understanding. This broad exposure to the practical realities of the City’s politics and processes enables Manatt professionals to guide, direct, and advise our clients towards successful outcomes.
The scope of the team is broad and comprehensive. The team’s skill sets match the most challenging needs, and include expertise in City legislation, regulation and budget matters, advocacy, government and community relations, franchising and contracting opportunities, and dispute resolution, to name a few.
A Reputation for PerformanceOur signature work includes representation of national and international corporations that provide goods and services to local government and public authorities, leading New York City cultural and not-for-profit entities, healthcare providers, and commercial and residential real estate developers. Since 2011, our highly regarded practice has been ranked as one of the top ten lobbying firms in New York City by the New York City Clerk’s Office.
Today, many respected New York City public and private organizations turn to Manatt for expert guidance, representation, and advocacy. This distinguished roster includes for-profit entities such as AECOM, Covanta Energy Corporation, The Durst Organization, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, McDonald’s, Siemens, Synagro, and Time Warner. Manatt also represents many prominent not-for-profits including the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre, the American Museum of Natural History, God’s Love We Deliver, the Museum for African Art, the New York City Business Improvement District Association, the New York Structural Biology Center, the Studio Museum in Harlem, the United States Tennis Association (USTA), and the Whitney Museum of American Art.
Beyond the Five BoroughsManatt’s New York City Government Practice works closely with the firm’s Albany, Washington, D.C., and Sacramento offices, and often draws upon the nationwide network of industry expertise of Manatt’s other groups, including its nationally recognized practices in Healthcare, Advertising, Infrastructure and Corporate Investigations and White Collar Defense litigation.
We have demonstrated expertise in nearly all legal specialties, including administrative and legislative matters, rulemaking and regulatory proceedings, government contracts, and government assistance agreements. This comprehensive, full-service approach provides a competitive advantage for our clients.
Areas of Concentration
With powerful national litigation capabilities, exceptional transactional experience, and deep and complex understanding of the government and regulatory arena, Manatt’s objective is to provide unparalleled legal, strategic, and business advice for our clients every day.
A New York State of MindNew York is a complex and diverse state to govern—and a notoriously challenging one in which to do business. Rife with contradictions, it’s home to the most populous city in the nation and the largest publicly protected park in the United States. New York contains enclaves of great wealth and pockets of devastating urban and rural poverty. The state hosts the leading global financial center, preeminent universities and research centers, high-technology companies, 35,000 family farms—and a state legislature variously described as an innovative laboratory of democracy and a poster child for legislative dysfunction.
Manatt’s New York State government practice has helped clients navigate through the legislative, political and regulatory landscape that is New York government to achieve their business and policy objectives. Our practice includes clients in healthcare and human services; pharmaceutical and biomedical research; real estate and construction; education and educational broadcasting; economic development, including job training and affordable housing providers; traditional and renewable energy; transportation; technology; insurance; trade association and not-for-profit sectors.
Politically Savvy CounselClients come to us—and stay with us—because we deliver results. We’re intimately familiar with the intricacies of the executive, administrative, regulatory and legislative processes, and have a keen understanding of the political terrain. By putting credibility above short-term political gain, we have developed strong relationships with government leaders and their key aides on both sides of the aisle.
Our team takes a genuine interest in your needs and is vested in your success. We’re unwavering in our commitment to helping you achieve your goals, whether we’re coalition-building, designing strategic community outreach efforts, providing legislators with well-vetted policy options and useful assessment criteria, drafting bills, procuring sponsors and locking up votes, or securing millions in funding, grants, contracts and awards.
Firsthand ExperienceMany members of our bipartisan team have held prominent positions in public service prior to joining Manatt, including serving as gubernatorial advisors or counsel, state legislators or high-level staffers, and in senior positions throughout New York State government, where they gained invaluable experience and insight and a wide range of local, regional and state contacts. Several former members of our group also serve in key positions in state and city agencies, as well as in the state legislature.
Lobbying and BeyondLocated within walking distance of the Capitol, our Albany office is perfectly situated to serve as a launching pad for our lobbying forays and administrative agency appearances on behalf of our clients. Our team can help you with securing the passage of landmark legislation and regulatory changes to protect or advance your interests, derailing adverse bills and rule proposals, obtaining necessary approvals from state agencies and winning reversals of adverse agency decisions in court.
In addition to working closely with legislators to get across clients’ positions on various issues, we provide a wide array of other services, including:
Keeping you up to date on late-breaking legislative, regulatory and judicial developments is also a key service we provide. Our client alerts, as well as our more thorough and detailed reports on complex legislative and regulatory issues or on the annual state budget, have been well-received not just by clients, but are also required reading in many state legislative and agency offices.
We Have You CoveredWe can tap into the substantial experience and unique industry know-how residing within our nationally recognized healthcare, advertising, infrastructure, entertainment and white-collar defense practices. With offices in New York City, Washington, D.C., Sacramento, and other cities of political and economic importance, we’re able to help you stay on top of the latest economic and political developments. We also work very closely with members of Manatt’s New York City government practice, which provides comprehensive and influential advocacy for those living in or doing business with the City.
We pride ourselves on being capable of doing more than just opening doors: we help craft the substance of our client’s ask with the benefit of a real understanding of the legal, policy and political context of the client’s issues. For example, Manatt is the preeminent healthcare advocacy law firm in Albany and has played an important role in helping major players in the health and human services sector develop and implement strategies to address today’s complex healthcare challenges. Clients include the nation’s largest comprehensive cancer center, several nationally known academic medical centers and specialty and general hospitals, the nation’s largest not-for-profit home care agency, two coalitions of not-for-profit health plans, the state’s largest provider of services to the developmentally disabled, and several leading professional and trade associations.
Working closely with Manatt Health Solutions, our policy and business advisory division, we regularly counsel and represent clients in Medicare and Medicaid audit matters before the state Medicaid Inspector General and other state and federal enforcement bodies, and we have successfully challenged governmental actions at every level of the state court system.
We bring that same level of experience and knowledge to the rest of our governmental practice, including on issues affecting energy and the environment, the delivery of social and human services, educational matters and economic development policy.
Government Funding Solutions, Infrastructure, and Contracting. Faced with deep cuts in federal funding, cash-strapped state governments, revenue-challenged regional transportation authorities and worthy-but-constrained not-for-profits regularly look to Manatt for help in getting a piece of the shrinking pie. Our team can help you develop a cost-share arrangement and assist with grant-writing, mount a concerted effort to get your request into the President's budget and line up the necessary votes in Congress, then handle the authorization and appropriation process.
Tax and International Trade. Increased competition from low-wage countries and stepped-up scrutiny of corporate tax rates and breaks, have been two areas of growing concern for many U.S. businesses. With Manatt's long-standing ties to the tax-writing House Ways & Means Senate Finance Committees, advocacy on tax, tariff and trade policies has become one of our strong suits. Whether you're a nonprofit fighting to protect your tax-exempt status, a company looking for protection from a specific threat of additional fees or taxes, or an industry association wanting to be heard on renewal of a regional or bilateral trade agreement or a federal tax reform issue, Manatt can help.
Energy. With a former advisor to the ranking member of the House Energy & Natural Resources Committee, a former spokesman for the Senate Energy Committee and a former chief counsel to the Senate Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation and Government Processes, Manatt is well-versed and positioned to represent the individual or collective interests of energy and natural resources companies on a variety of business, tax, energy and climate issues.
Financial Services, Banking and Real Estate. Manatt was founded nearly 50 years ago as counsel to banks and savings and loan associations, and the firm's financial services client roster has since grown to include consumer finance and credit card companies, government pension plans and private investment funds, and other entities involved in the management, investment, transfer and lending of money. Our federal advocacy regularly places us in contact with the House Financial Services Committee and Senate Banking Committee as well as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Indeed, we have worked with industry trade associations from congressional debate on Dodd-Frank, the sweeping legislation under which the CFPB was created, through to current CFPB rulemaking.
Healthcare. Public debate over the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was intense, and our Washington team was right in the thick of it. By way of example, our team helped formulate the strategy and lobby for a major international healthcare company; when the dust settled, we had helped save it $300 million in annual revenues. There are many more ACA battles ahead, and our government affairs team, which is fully integrated with Manatt's nationally recognized healthcare law and consulting practice, understands the complex issues hospitals and healthcare systems face, which will be of great value to our clients seeking have to have their voice heard on the new law's interpretation and implementation.
Ranked for Government Relations 2010–2012
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